Black History Month 2022 "Shall We Never Forget"


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E. Franklin Frazier

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Edward Franklin Frazier, the most prominent African American sociologist of the 20th Century, was born on September 24, 1894 and died on May 17, 1962. Best known for his critical work on the black middle class, Black Bourgeoisie (1957), Frazier was also a harsh critic of Jim Crow as the great inhibitor of the American Dream for the “American Negro.”

After graduating from Howard University with honors in 1916,.....Like many of his black contemporary scholars, Frazier used “philanthropic” funding to continue his studies at the New York School of Social Work, and overseas at the University of Copenhagen. Upon his return to the U.S. he accepted a position at Atlanta University as its director of social work. Frazier’s lifelong image as “harsh critic” was revealed in a scholarly essay, in a 1929 issue of Forum magazine, entitled “The Pathology of Race Prejudice.” This was his essay to examine white racism and its effects on its black victims. Its penetrating critique, however, led to his dismissal from the university.

He completed the doctorate in 1931 with a dissertation entitled “The Negro Family in Chicago.” Frazier taught at Fisk until 1943 when he became the chair of the sociology department at Howard University where he remained until his death in 1962.

Frazier’s research rested on the assumption that black Americans had a fundamental right “to full participation in American Democracy.” Frazier’s research also critiqued racist research which argued for biological determinism in explaining the low achievement of blacks. His first major work, The Negro Family in the United States (1939), examined how social historical factors such as slavery, white terror, urban migration, and social disruptions affected the health of the African American family.

Black Bourgeoisie (1957) was Frazier’s most celebrated and criticized work. In this book, Frazier seared contemporary blacks who saw themselves as middle class. This false consciousness as he called it, led to a cultural elitism and material existence based solely on acquisitiveness.
 

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The 1680 American Colonial Statute that would become the model of repression throughout the Colonial South for the next 180 years:

June 1680-ACT X. An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections.

WHEREAS the frequent meeting of considerable numbers of negro slaves under pretense of feasts and burials is judged of dangerous consequence it shall not be lawful for any negro or other slave to carry or arm himself with any club, staff, gun, sword or any other weapon nor go from of his master's plantation without a certificate but upon necessary occasions; the punishment twenty lashes on his bare back well laid on. And it is further enacted by the authority aforesaid that if any negro shall lift up his hand in opposition against any Christian, shall for every such offence, upon due proof made thereof by the oath of the party before a magistrate, have and receive thirty lashes on his bare back well laid on. And it is hereby further enacted that if any negro or other slave shall absent himself from his master's service and shall resist apprehension it shall be lawful for such person or persons to kill the said negro or slave resisting, and that this law be published every six months at the respective county courts and parish churches within this colony (A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., pg. 39).

Source: In The Matter of Color, copyright 1978
 

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Bishop Henry McNeal Turner

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Black Nationalist, repatriationist, and minister, Henry M. Turner was 31 years old at the time of the Emancipation. Turner was born in 1834 in Newberry Courthouse, South Carolina to free black parents Sarah Greer and Hardy Turner. The self-taught Turner was attracted to the church and after being converted during a Methodist religious revival, decided to become a minister. He joined the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church and became a licensed minister in 1853 at the age of 19.

In 1858 Turner entered Trinity College in Baltimore, Maryland where he studied Latin, Greek, Hebrew and theology. Two years later he became the pastor of the Union Bethel Church in Washington, D.C.

After the Civil War, Turner returned to Georgia and quickly became active in Reconstruction-era politics. In 1867 he organized for the Republican Party in Georgia and the following year was elected a delegate to the Georgia State Constitutional Convention. In the same year he was also elected to the Georgia State Legislature. Although 27 African Americans were elected to that body, a coalition of white Democrats and Republicans declared the African American members disqualified and refused to seat them.

In 1883 Turner became one of the first black leaders to raise the issue of enslavement reparations. He argued that America’s blacks should collectively ask the government for $100 million to facilitate their relocation to the African continent.

His advocacy of African Americans migrating to Africa anticipated Marcus Garvey’s United Negro Improvement Association, which promoted a Back-to-Africa movement in the 1920s.
 

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Ona "Oney" Judge

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When he was just 11 years old, George Washington inherited 10 slaves from his father’s estate. He would acquire many more in the years to come, whether through the death of other family members or by purchasing them directly. When he married the wealthy widow Martha Dandridge Custis in 1759, she brought more than 80 enslaved workers along with her.

Ona Judge was born around 1773. Her mother, Betty, was a “dower slave,” part of the estate of Martha’s. Children born to enslaved women were considered property of the slaveholder, according to Virginia law, she would remain in bondage.

Later, 1780, when the federal capital moved to Philadelphia, the presidential household moved with it. With an active and growing free black community of some 6,000 people, Philadelphia had become the nation’s leading hotbed of abolitionism. To evade a gradual abolition law that took effect in Pennsylvania in 1780, the Washingtons made sure to transport their enslaved workers in and out of the state every six months to avoid them establishing legal residency.

Over more than five years in Philadelphia—traveling in and out every six months—Ona met and became acquainted with members of the city’s free black community and former enslaved workers who had gained their freedom under the gradual abolition law.

On May 21, 1796, she slipped out of the mansion while the president and first lady were eating their supper. Members of the free black community helped her get aboard a ship that sailed frequently to Portsmouth New Hampshire. Days later she would begin her new life.

Far from a passive bystander in the perpetuation of slavery, Washington at this point was actively engaged in returning Judge to his (or his wife’s) possession.

Ona, safe for the time being, started building a life in Portsmouth, and married Jack Staines, a free black sailor, in early 1797. Though marriage gave her some additional legal protection, Ona remained vigilant–with good reason. In August 1799, Washington asked his nephew, Burwell Bassett Jr., to try and seize Judge and any children she may have had on his upcoming business trip to New Hampshire.

Ona, upon hearing Bassett was after her, managed to escape to the neighboring town of Greenland, where she and her infant daughter hid with a free black family, the Jacks, until Bassett left Portsmouth, empty-handed. Four months later, George Washington died.
 
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Colonel Tye "Titus" - Freedom Fighting Redcoat
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Colonel Tye earned a reputation as the most formidable guerilla leader in the Revolutionary War. During his years fighting for the British, Patriots feared his raids, while their slaves welcomed his help in their liberation.

Tye, originally known as Titus during his early years in slavery in New Jersey, escaped a particularly brutal master in 1775 and joined the British army after the Crown offered freedom to any enslaved person who enlisted. While Tye stood out as a soldier from the start, the British didn’t station him at pitched battles. They saw more value in using his knowledge of the coveted New Jersey territory, which sat between British-occupied New York and the Patriot’s center of government in Philadelphia. The Redcoats needed to take this middle land—and believed Tye could help.

The British were right. Tye excelled at raid warfare there. His familiarity with the area gave him an advantage in attacks on Patriots’ lands. And his daring, skillful execution kept his Black Brigade soldiers largely unscathed as they plundered homes, took supplies, freed slaves and sometimes even assassinated Patriot slaveholders renowned for their cruelty. The British recognized Tye’s impact on their success and, out of respect for all his contributions, bestowed on him the honorific title of Colonel. He remains an important symbol of fearless resistance.
 
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Josiah Henson (Uncle Tom)

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Josiah Henson (June 15, 1789 – May 5, 1883) was an author, abolitionist, and minister. Born into #slavery in Charles County, Maryland.

In 1849, Josiah Henson published his memoirs, entitled The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself.

Henson’s story, in part, inspired U.S. novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe to write Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852), an American classic which helped turn American popular opinion in favor of abolition.

The ‘Uncle Tom’ slur derives from character distortions in theatrical and cinematic renditions of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The main character, Uncle Tom, is almost certainly based on Josiah Henson, a celebrated Canadian hero who, ironically, was one of the greatest champions of the 19th Century black Canadian community.

 
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Melinated People and Places Bible Key

Genesis 10:6, King James Version

And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.

Ham- warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning “black”

Cush- Biblically means lower Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea or Sudan

Psalm 68:31, ESV: Nobles shall come from Egypt; Cush shall hasten to stretch out her hands to God.

Psalm 68:31, KJV: Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.

Mizraim- Mizraim is Hebrew for the word Egypt in the Bible

Genesis 10:13, ESV: Egypt fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim,

Genesis 10:13, KJV: Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,

Phut- Biblically, Phut or Put is Libya

Ezekiel 27:10, KJV; They of Persia and of Lud and of Phut were in thine army, thy men of war ......

Ezekiel 27:10, NKJV; Those from Persia, Lydia, and Libya Were in your army as men of war ......

Canaan- Biblically, believed the same as Palestine
 
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Simon of Cyrene (Libya)
"The Cross Bearer"

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Simon of Cyrene is mentioned in three of the four Gospels as the man compelled by the Roman soldiers to carry our Lord’s cross out of Jerusalem. Cyrene was situated in modern day Libya, on the northern coast of the African continent.

Luke 23:26
26 And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.

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The first statute is located in Huntsville, AL., and the other is located in Gorman, TX.
 
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Attack Dog

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That dayum sculpture and pictures like it! Simon and Jesus wouldn't have looked any different. That's a European in that picture and they didn't even know where Africa was at the time. As a matter of fact, they were so dumb the Roman's said they were not even fit to be slaves. But they want to claim Jesus.
 
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